The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a cystic structure of the inner ear connected to the cochlea and vestibule, which plays a role in regulating ion homeostasis in inner ear fluid. Disruption of ion homeostasis can cause inner ear disorders with hearing loss and dizziness, such as Meniere's disease. Herein, we found, for the first time, functional evidence for the involvement of β 1-and β 2-Adrenergic receptors in apical electrogenic ion transport by human ES epithelium by using electrophysiological/pharmacological and molecular biological methods, which were dependent on K + and Cl â ' ion transport. The apical electrogenic transport was absent or very weak in ES epithelia of patients with Meniere's disease. These results suggested that adrenergic stimulation via β 1-and β 2-Adrenergic receptors in the human ES was involved in regulation of inner ear fluid ion homeostasis and impairment of this response could be a pathological mechanism of Meniere's disease.
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