The enhancement of interfacial charge collection efficiency using buffer layers is a cost-effective way to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) because they are often universally applicable regardless of the active materials. However, the availability of high-performance buffer materials, which are solution-processable at low temperature, are limited and they often require burdensome additional surface modifications. Herein, high-performance ZnO based electron transporting layers (ETLs) for OPVs are developed with a novel g-ray-assisted solution process. Through careful formulation of the ZnO precursor and g-ray irradiation, the pre-formation of ZnO nanoparticles occurs in the precursor solutions, which enables the preparation of high quality ZnO films. The g-ray assisted ZnO (ZnO-G) films possess a remarkably low defect density compared to the conventionally prepared ZnO films. The low-defect ZnO-G films can improve charge extraction efficiency of ETL without any additional treatment. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device using the ZnO-G ETLs is 11.09% with an open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current density (JSC), and fill factor (FF) of 0.80 V, 19.54 mA cm-2, and 0.71, respectively, which is one of the best values among widely studied poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)]: [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7-Th:PC71BM)-based devices.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research conducted at Kookmin University was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (Nos. 2016R1A5A1012966, 2017M2A2A6A01020854, and 2017R1A2B2009178) and the Global Scholarship Program for Foreign Graduate Students at Kookmin University in Korea. The research conducted at the University of Ulsan was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea grant (2014R1A4A1071686 and 2017M2A2A6A01018599).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Materials Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)