The effect of the potent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) on neurite outgrowth and retraction was investigated in PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. ODQ inhibited neurite outgrowth and triggered neurite retraction in the cells stimulated with nerve growth factor (NGF), staurosporine, or Y-27632. The nitric oxide (NO) scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) had little effect on neurite outgrowth induced by Y-27632 or staurosporine. In the presence of ODQ, treatment of the cells with the cell-permeable cGMP analogue 8-bromo-cGMP failed to retrigger Y-27632- and staurosporine-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, the depletion of sGC by RNA interference failed to prevent Y-27632- and staurosporine-induced neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that the NO/sGC/cGMP signaling cascade is not critically involved in ODQ-induced neurite remodeling. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 did not inhibit neurite outgrowth, and Y-27632 and staurosporine did not induce ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of ODQ on neurite outgrowth is independent of the ERK signaling pathway. In contrast, pretreatment with dithionite or a hemin-glutathione mixture reversed the inhibitory effect of ODQ on Y-27632-and staurosporine-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating that ODQ might act on an intracellular redox-sensitive molecule. We conclude that ODQ inhibits Y-27632-and staurosporine-induced neurite outgrowth and triggers neurite retraction in an sGC-independent manner in neuronal cells and suggest that oxidation of unidentified redox-sensitive protein could be responsible for these effects.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience