2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene modifies cellular proteins and induces macrophage inflammatory protein-2 gene expression via reactive oxygen species production in RAW 264.7 cells

Dongbum Kim, Young Jin Kim, Jae Nam Seo, Jinho Kim, Younghee Lee, Cheung Seog Park, Dae Won Kim, Doo Sik Kim, Hyung Joo Kwon

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15 Citations (Scopus)


The skin sensitizer 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) provokes delayed hypersensitivity responses as a result of topical application to the skin. Here, we demonstrate that DNFB modifies proteins in RAW 264.7 cells and skin tissues in NCNga mice; we also show the functional involvement of DNFB-induced modification of cellular proteins in the DNFB-induced macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, we demonstrate that DNFB strongly induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Our RT-PCR analysis and reporter gene assays reveal that the DNFB-induced intracellular ROS production is necessary for MIP-2 gene expression by DNFB. We observed that the vitamin C and chemical oxidant scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine have an inhibitory effect on the generation of ROS, the activation of MAP kinase pathways, and the MIP-2 gene expression in DNFB-treated RAW 264.7 cells. These results provide insight into the mechanisms involved in DNFB-induced contact hypersensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-152
Number of pages21
JournalImmunological Investigations
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Nov 9


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology

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