3d concrete printing: A systematic review of rheology, mix designs, mechanical, microstructural, and durability characteristics

Atta Ur Rehman, Jung Hoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


This paper provides a state-of-the-art report on the up-to-date research on the emerging 3D concrete printing technology from the concrete materials perspective. It reviews the recent research focused on understanding and characterizing the rheological necessities of the concrete printing process and discusses how the researchers are tailoring compatible mix proportions for the 3D concrete printing process by using eco-friendly binders, waste aggregates, chemical admixtures, and nano-additives. This paper systematically evaluates anisotropic behavior in the mechanical properties of printed concrete and establishes an order for anisotropic behavior in the compressive, flex-ural, and tensile strengths along three different axes (X, Y, and Z axes) of printed concrete. It evaluates the ratio of flexural strength to the compressive strength of printed concrete along the above three axes. This article explains the influence of variation of printing process parameters on the mechanical properties and discusses reinforcement approaches used for increasing structural perfor-mance. The microstructure at the interface of adjacent layers and also at the interface of the rein-forcement-cement matrix is discussed. The recent research on the durability performance of printed concrete is critically discussed and future research needs for 3D concrete printing are identified in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3800
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul 2

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Yonsei University Research Fund (Post Doc. Researcher Supporting Program) of 2021 (Project No. 2021-12-0027). This study was also supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) Korea under Grant No. NRF-2021R1A2C2013522.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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