3D Electrodes for Bioelectronics

Yo Han Cho, Young Geun Park, Sumin Kim, Jang Ung Park

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


In recent studies related to bioelectronics, significant efforts have been made to form 3D electrodes to increase the effective surface area or to optimize the transfer of signals at tissue–electrode interfaces. Although bioelectronic devices with 2D and flat electrode structures have been used extensively for monitoring biological signals, these 2D planar electrodes have made it difficult to form biocompatible and uniform interfaces with nonplanar and soft biological systems (at the cellular or tissue levels). Especially, recent biomedical applications have been expanding rapidly toward 3D organoids and the deep tissues of living animals, and 3D bioelectrodes are getting significant attention because they can reach the deep regions of various 3D tissues. An overview of recent studies on 3D bioelectronic devices, such as the use of electrical stimulations and the recording of neural signals from biological subjects, is presented. Subsequently, the recent developments in materials and fabrication processing to 3D micro- and nanostructures are introduced, followed by broad applications of these 3D bioelectronic devices at various in vitro and in vivo conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2005805
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov 25

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Y.H.C., Y.‐G.P., and S.K. contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science & ICT (MSIT) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) of Korea through the National Research Foundation (2019R1A2B5B03069358 and 2016R1A5A1009926), the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program (2018M3A9F1021649), the Nano Material Technology Development Program (2016M3A7B4910635), and the Technology Innovation Program (20010366). Also, the authors thank financial support by the Institute for Basic Science (IBS‐R026‐D1) and the Research Program (2019‐22‐0228) funded by Yonsei University.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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