3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes

Nasuha Rohaizad, Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez, Filip Novotný, Richard D. Webster, Martin Pumera

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Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the advantages of customisation, reproducibility and rapid production. In parallel, there is a demand for electrochemical components designed for miniaturisation or customisation of devices. Herein we report a straightforward, fast and simple method to prepare an Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode primarily based on 3D printing using a graphene/polylactic acid filament. The fabrication process involves electrodeposition of silver followed by bleaching to form AgCl on the surface of the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the fabrication process. Open circuit potential measurements against commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrodes reveal a difference of 14 ± 0.3 mV. Nonetheless, the values are stable and reproducible, fulfilling the necessary requirements of a reference electrode. The performance of the 3D-printed pseudo-reference electrode was tested via cyclic voltammetry in two redox systems, [Fe(CN)6]3 /4 and [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+. Fabrication of stable 3D-printed reference electrodes represents a key step in the production of fully 3D-printable electrochemical systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-108
Number of pages5
JournalElectrochemistry Communications
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrochemistry

Cite this

Rohaizad, N., Mayorga-Martinez, C. C., Novotný, F., Webster, R. D., & Pumera, M. (2019). 3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes. Electrochemistry Communications, 103, 104-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2019.05.010