3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes

Nasuha Rohaizad, Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez, Filip Novotný, Richard D. Webster, Martin Pumera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the advantages of customisation, reproducibility and rapid production. In parallel, there is a demand for electrochemical components designed for miniaturisation or customisation of devices. Herein we report a straightforward, fast and simple method to prepare an Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode primarily based on 3D printing using a graphene/polylactic acid filament. The fabrication process involves electrodeposition of silver followed by bleaching to form AgCl on the surface of the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the fabrication process. Open circuit potential measurements against commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrodes reveal a difference of 14 ± 0.3 mV. Nonetheless, the values are stable and reproducible, fulfilling the necessary requirements of a reference electrode. The performance of the 3D-printed pseudo-reference electrode was tested via cyclic voltammetry in two redox systems, [Fe(CN)6]3 /4 and [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+. Fabrication of stable 3D-printed reference electrodes represents a key step in the production of fully 3D-printable electrochemical systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-108
Number of pages5
JournalElectrochemistry Communications
Volume103
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1

Fingerprint

Electrodes
Fabrication
Printing
Graphite
Bleaching
Silver
Electrodeposition
Graphene
Cyclic voltammetry
Scanning electron microscopy
Acids
Networks (circuits)

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrochemistry

Cite this

Rohaizad, N., Mayorga-Martinez, C. C., Novotný, F., Webster, R. D., & Pumera, M. (2019). 3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes. Electrochemistry Communications, 103, 104-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2019.05.010
Rohaizad, Nasuha ; Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C. ; Novotný, Filip ; Webster, Richard D. ; Pumera, Martin. / 3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes. In: Electrochemistry Communications. 2019 ; Vol. 103. pp. 104-108.
@article{7753830793544280a5a02136d27bfac5,
title = "3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes",
abstract = "Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the advantages of customisation, reproducibility and rapid production. In parallel, there is a demand for electrochemical components designed for miniaturisation or customisation of devices. Herein we report a straightforward, fast and simple method to prepare an Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode primarily based on 3D printing using a graphene/polylactic acid filament. The fabrication process involves electrodeposition of silver followed by bleaching to form AgCl on the surface of the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the fabrication process. Open circuit potential measurements against commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrodes reveal a difference of 14 ± 0.3 mV. Nonetheless, the values are stable and reproducible, fulfilling the necessary requirements of a reference electrode. The performance of the 3D-printed pseudo-reference electrode was tested via cyclic voltammetry in two redox systems, [Fe(CN)6]3 − /4 − and [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+. Fabrication of stable 3D-printed reference electrodes represents a key step in the production of fully 3D-printable electrochemical systems.",
author = "Nasuha Rohaizad and Mayorga-Martinez, {Carmen C.} and Filip Novotn{\'y} and Webster, {Richard D.} and Martin Pumera",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.elecom.2019.05.010",
language = "English",
volume = "103",
pages = "104--108",
journal = "Electrochemistry Communications",
issn = "1388-2481",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",

}

Rohaizad, N, Mayorga-Martinez, CC, Novotný, F, Webster, RD & Pumera, M 2019, '3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes', Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 103, pp. 104-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2019.05.010

3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes. / Rohaizad, Nasuha; Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C.; Novotný, Filip; Webster, Richard D.; Pumera, Martin.

In: Electrochemistry Communications, Vol. 103, 01.06.2019, p. 104-108.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - 3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes

AU - Rohaizad, Nasuha

AU - Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C.

AU - Novotný, Filip

AU - Webster, Richard D.

AU - Pumera, Martin

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the advantages of customisation, reproducibility and rapid production. In parallel, there is a demand for electrochemical components designed for miniaturisation or customisation of devices. Herein we report a straightforward, fast and simple method to prepare an Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode primarily based on 3D printing using a graphene/polylactic acid filament. The fabrication process involves electrodeposition of silver followed by bleaching to form AgCl on the surface of the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the fabrication process. Open circuit potential measurements against commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrodes reveal a difference of 14 ± 0.3 mV. Nonetheless, the values are stable and reproducible, fulfilling the necessary requirements of a reference electrode. The performance of the 3D-printed pseudo-reference electrode was tested via cyclic voltammetry in two redox systems, [Fe(CN)6]3 − /4 − and [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+. Fabrication of stable 3D-printed reference electrodes represents a key step in the production of fully 3D-printable electrochemical systems.

AB - Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the advantages of customisation, reproducibility and rapid production. In parallel, there is a demand for electrochemical components designed for miniaturisation or customisation of devices. Herein we report a straightforward, fast and simple method to prepare an Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode primarily based on 3D printing using a graphene/polylactic acid filament. The fabrication process involves electrodeposition of silver followed by bleaching to form AgCl on the surface of the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the fabrication process. Open circuit potential measurements against commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrodes reveal a difference of 14 ± 0.3 mV. Nonetheless, the values are stable and reproducible, fulfilling the necessary requirements of a reference electrode. The performance of the 3D-printed pseudo-reference electrode was tested via cyclic voltammetry in two redox systems, [Fe(CN)6]3 − /4 − and [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+. Fabrication of stable 3D-printed reference electrodes represents a key step in the production of fully 3D-printable electrochemical systems.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066266319&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85066266319&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.elecom.2019.05.010

DO - 10.1016/j.elecom.2019.05.010

M3 - Article

VL - 103

SP - 104

EP - 108

JO - Electrochemistry Communications

JF - Electrochemistry Communications

SN - 1388-2481

ER -