3D Printing of Thylakoid-PEDOT:PSS Composite Electrode for Bio-Photoelectrochemical Cells

Yong Jae Kim, Seon Il Kim, Jong Hyun Kim, Jae Hyoung Yun, Hyeonaug Hong, Jaeho Kim, Won Hyoung Ryu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Thylakoid membranes (TMs) isolated from plant cells produce high-energy electrons by splitting water molecules using solar energy during photosynthesis. Since those photosynthetic electrons (PEs) can be harvested by oxidizing TMs, various approaches to attach TMs on electrodes have been investigated so far. Here, we propose embedding of TMs in the electrically conductive polymeric structure using 3D printing. A photosynthetic and electrically conductive ink based on a mixture ink of TMs and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) was developed and 3D printed as lattice structures. This approach allows for more stable physical and electrochemical interfacing between TMs and the conductive polymer. Furthermore, free-form 3D structures, which can harvest PEs, can be constructed by 3D printing. 3D printing conditions for the TM/PEDOT:PSS inks were optimized, and 3D printed lattice electrodes with different geometries were analyzed in terms of light absorption and PE extraction. We found out that TM-embedded offset-stack lattice electrodes generated the highest PE current density of 70.6 μA/cm2. A bio-photoelectrochemical cell based on the TM-embedded offset-stack lattice generated a short-circuit current density of 0.57 mA/cm2 and a maximum power density of 101.7

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)773-781
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan 23

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIT) (no. 2020R1A2C3013158) and by Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government (MOTIE) (no. 20193310100030).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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