Find Research Outputs

2019
3 Citations (Scopus)

Ambient PM2.5 and birth outcomes: Estimating the association and attributable risk using a birth cohort study in nine Chinese cities

Liang, Z., Yang, Y., Qian, Z., Ruan, Z., Chang, J., Vaughn, M. G., Zhao, Q. & Lin, H., 2019 May, In : Environment International. 126, p. 329-335 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
risk factor
pregnancy
river
aerodynamics
atmospheric pollution
6 Citations (Scopus)

Ambient PM2.5 and O3 and their combined effects on prevalence of presbyopia among the elderly: A cross-sectional study in six low- and middle-income countries

Lin, H., Guo, Y., Ruan, Z., Yang, Y., Chen, Y., Zheng, Y., Cummings-Vaughn, L. A., Rigdon, S. E., Vaughn, M. G., Sun, S., Zhang, L., Wang, X., Qian, Z. M. & Wu, F., 2019 Mar 10, In : Science of the Total Environment. 655, p. 168-173 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

income
Air Pollutants
Particulate Matter
Ozone
Contacts (fluid mechanics)
1 Citation (Scopus)

Ambipolar Memristive Phenomenon in Large-Scale, Few-Layered αMoO3 Recrystallized Films

Kim, H., Lee, G. H., Hone, J. & Shepard, K. L., 2019 Jan 23, In : Advanced Materials Interfaces. 6, 2, 1801591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Crystals
Energy gap
Crystal atomic structure
Hole mobility
Oxides
1 Citation (Scopus)

A MEMS ultrasound stimulation system for modulation of neural circuits with high spatial resolution in vitro

Lee, J., Ko, K., Shin, H., Oh, S. J., Lee, C. J., Chou, N., Choi, N., Tack Oh, M., Chul Lee, B., Chan Jun, S. & Cho, I. J., 2019 Dec 1, In : Microsystems and Nanoengineering. 5, 1, 28.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
stimulation
microelectromechanical systems
MEMS
transducers
spatial resolution

A Metal-Doped Fungi-Based Biomaterial for Advanced Electrocatalysis

Krejčová, L., Leonhardt, T., Novotný, F., Bartůněk, V., Mazánek, V., Sedmidubský, D., Sofer, Z. & Pumera, M., 2019 Mar 12, In : Chemistry - A European Journal. 25, 15, p. 3828-3834 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Electrocatalysis
Biocompatible Materials
Fungi
Biomaterials
hydrazine

A method of induced current estimation of EDS type maglev using 3D transient EM analysis

Lim, S., Kim, D., Yoo, J. & Park, N. C., 2019 Jan 1, In : Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, A. 43, 4, p. 253-259 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Induced currents
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
Guideways
Electrodynamics

Amide proton transfer imaging might predict survival and IDH mutation status in high-grade glioma

Joo, B., Han, K., Ahn, S. S., Choi, Y. S., Chang, J. H., Kang, S. G., Kim, S. H., Zhou, J. & Lee, S. K., 2019 Dec 1, In : European Radiology. 29, 12, p. 6643-6652 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amides
Glioma
Protons
Mutation
Survival
4 Citations (Scopus)

Amino acid salt-driven planar hybrid perovskite solar cells with enhanced humidity stability

Yun, S. C., Ma, S., Kwon, H. C., Kim, K., Jang, G., Yang, H. & Moon, J. H., 2019 May 1, In : Nano Energy. 59, p. 481-491 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amino acids
Atmospheric humidity
Salts
Conversion efficiency
Amino Acids
1 Citation (Scopus)

Amino acid signatures of HLA Class-I and II molecules are strongly associated with SLE susceptibility and autoantibody production in Eastern Asians

Molineros, J. E., Looger, L. L., Kim, K., Okada, Y., Terao, C., Sun, C., Zhou, X. J., Raj, P., Kochi, Y., Suzuki, A., Akizuki, S., Nakabo, S., Bang, S. Y., Lee, H. S., Kang, Y. M., Suh, C. H., Chung, W. T., Park, Y. B., Choe, J. Y., Shim, S. C. & 13 others, Lee, S. S., Zuo, X., Yamamoto, K., Li, Q. Z., Shen, N., Porter, L. L., Harley, J. B., Chua, K. H., Zhang, H., Wakeland, E. K., Tsao, B. P., Bae, S. C. & Nath, S. K., 2019 Jan 1, In : PLoS Genetics. 15, 4, e1008092.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
lupus erythematosus
antibody formation
HLA Antigens
antigen
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

A miRNA-Mediated Approach to Dissect the Complexity of Tumor-Initiating Cell Function and Identify miRNA-Targeting Drugs

Belur Nagaraj, A., Joseph, P., Ponting, E., Fedorov, Y., Singh, S., Cole, A., Lee, W., Yoon, E., Baccarini, A., Scacheri, P., Buckanovich, R., Adams, D. J., Drapkin, R., Brown, B. D. & DiFeo, A., 2019 Jan 8, In : Stem Cell Reports. 12, 1, p. 122-134 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Neoplastic Stem Cells
Drug Delivery Systems
MicroRNAs
Tumors
3' Untranslated Regions

Ammonia Cross-Sensitivity Eliminatin Method of NOx Sensor for UREA-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) System

Kim, K., Lee, T. H., Kang, D. H., Kwon, H. B., Lee, S. M., Yoo, S. J., Hong, U. S. & Kim, Y. J., 2019 Jun, 2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems and Eurosensors XXXIII, TRANSDUCERS 2019 and EUROSENSORS XXXIII. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1246-1249 4 p. 8808433. (2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems and Eurosensors XXXIII, TRANSDUCERS 2019 and EUROSENSORS XXXIII).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

silicon controlled rectifiers
Selective catalytic reduction
Ammonia
Thyristors
ammonia
1 Citation (Scopus)

A Model to Predict 1-Month Risk of Transplant or Death in Hepatitis A–Related Acute Liver Failure

Kim, J. D., Cho, E. J., Ahn, C., Park, S. K., Choi, J. Y., Lee, H. C., Kim, D. Y., Choi, M. S., Wang, H. J., Kim, I. H., Yeon, J. E., Seo, Y. S., Tak, W. Y., Kim, M. Y., Lee, H. J., Kim, Y. S., Jun, D. W., Sohn, J. H., Kwon, S. Y., Park, S. H. & 13 others, Heo, J., Jeong, S. H., Lee, J. H., Nakayama, N., Mochida, S., Ido, A., Tsubouchi, H., Takikawa, H., Shalimar, Acharya, S. K., Bernal, W., O’Grady, J. & Kim, Y. J., 2019 Jan 1, In : Hepatology. 70, 2, p. 621-629 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Acute Liver Failure
Hepatitis
Confidence Intervals
Transplants
Hepatitis A
5 Citations (Scopus)

A multicenter phase II study of AMG 337 in patients with MET-amplified gastric/gastroesophageal junction/esophageal adenocarcinoma and other MET-amplified solid tumors

Van Cutsem, E., Karaszewska, B., Kang, Y. K., Chung, H. C., Shankaran, V., Siena, S., Go, N. F., Yang, H., Schupp, M. & Cunningham, D., 2019 Apr 15, In : Clinical Cancer Research. 25, 8, p. 2414-2423 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Esophagogastric Junction
Stomach
Adenocarcinoma
Neoplasms
Disease-Free Survival
7 Citations (Scopus)

A multicenter study of entecavir vs. tenofovir on prognosis of treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B in South Korea

Kim, S. U., Seo, Y. S., Lee, H. A., Kim, M. N., Lee, Y. R., Lee, H. W., Park, J. Y., Kim, D. Y., Ahn, S. H., Han, K. H., Hwang, S. G., Rim, K. S., Um, S. H., Tak, W. Y., Kweon, Y. O., Kim, B. K. & Park, S. Y., 2019 Sep, In : Journal of Hepatology. 71, 3, p. 456-464 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tenofovir
Republic of Korea
Chronic Hepatitis B
Multicenter Studies
Antiviral Agents
1 Citation (Scopus)

A multidisciplinary understanding of polarization

Jung, J., Grim, P., Singer, D. J., Bramson, A., Berger, W. J., Holman, B. & Kovaka, K., 2019 Apr, In : American Psychologist. 74, 3, p. 301-314 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Research
Social Psychology
Terminology
Direction compound

A multi-institutional study of bladder-preserving therapy for stage II-IV bladder cancer: A Korean radiation oncology group study (KROG 14-16)

Byun, S. J., Park, W., Cho, K. H., Cho, J., Chang, A. R., Kang, K. M., Kim, J. H. & Kim, J. H., 2019 Jan, In : PloS one. 14, 1, e0209998.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Radiation Oncology
Oncology
Radiotherapy
radiotherapy
bladder
3 Citations (Scopus)

A multi-objective optimization model for determining the building design and occupant behaviors based on energy, economic, and environmental performance

Hong, T., Kim, J. & Lee, M., 2019 May 1, In : Energy. 174, p. 823-834 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Multiobjective optimization
Thermal comfort
Life cycle
Economics
Thermal energy

A Multi-Robot Cooperative Patrolling Algorithm with Sharing Multiple Cycles

Hong, Y., Kyung, Y. & Kim, S. L., 2019 Jun, 2019 European Conference on Networks and Communications, EuCNC 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 300-304 5 p. 8802015. (2019 European Conference on Networks and Communications, EuCNC 2019).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Robots
Hamiltonians
Traveling salesman problem
Costs
Computational complexity

An adaptive shuttering scheme for speed-artifact-free swipe fingerprint sensor

Kim, S. & Han, G., 2019 Jan 1, 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2019 - Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 8702250. (Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems; vol. 2019-May).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Pattern matching
Sensors
Displacement measurement
Pixels
Networks (circuits)
6 Citations (Scopus)

Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment: Novel configurations, fouling control and energy considerations

Maaz, M., Yasin, M., Aslam, M., Kumar, G., Atabani, A. E., Idrees, M., Anjum, F., Jamil, F., Ahmad, R., Khan, A. L., Lesage, G., Heran, M. & Kim, J., 2019 Jul, In : Bioresource technology. 283, p. 358-372 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Fouling
Bioreactors
fouling
Wastewater treatment
bioreactor

Anaerobic membrane bioreactor towards biowaste biorefinery and chemical energy harvest: Recent progress, membrane fouling and future perspectives

Zhen, G., Pan, Y., Lu, X., Li, Y. Y., Zhang, Z., Niu, C., Kumar, G., Kobayashi, T., Zhao, Y. & Xu, K., 2019 Nov, In : Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 115, 109392.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Membrane fouling
Bioreactors
Membranes
Methane
Phosphorus

An Alamouti Scheme Based on Subcarrier Alternating for MIMO FBMC-QAM System with Two Prototype Filters

Sim, D. & Lee, C., 2019 Sep, In : IEEE Communications Letters. 23, 9, p. 1603-1606 4 p., 8746760.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Multicarrier
Filter Banks
Filter banks
Quadrature amplitude modulation

Analog mean-delay method: A new time-domain super-resolution technique for accurate fluorescence lifetime measurement

Kim, D. Y., Hwang, W., Kim, D. E., Won, Y., Moon, S., Lee, S. Y., Kang, M. G. & Han, W. S., 2019 Jan 1, Single Molecule Spectroscopy and Superresolution Imaging XII. Koberling, F., Gryczynski, Z. K. & Gregor, I. (eds.). SPIE, 108840D. (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 10884).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Optical Imaging
Microscopy
Fluorescence
analogs
Imaging techniques
1 Citation (Scopus)

Analysis and design of low-power continuous-time delta-sigma modulator using negative-R assisted integrator

Jang, M., Lee, C. & Chae, Y., 2019 Jan, In : IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 54, 1, p. 277-287 11 p., 8486729.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Modulators
Digital to analog conversion
Operational amplifiers
Feedback
Bandwidth

Analysis of a gas mask using CFD simulation

Jeon, R., Kwon, K., Yoon, S., Park, M., Lee, C. & Oh, M., 2019 Jan 1, In : Korean Chemical Engineering Research. 57, 4, p. 475-483 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gas masks
Computational fluid dynamics
Gases
Activated carbon
Adsorption

Analysis of anisotropic in-plane strain behavior in condensed Si1-xGex fin epitaxial layer using X-ray reciprocal space mapping

Jang, H., Kim, B., Koo, S., Choi, Y., Shin, C. S. & Ko, D. H., 2019 Mar 1, In : Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. 58, 3, 036502.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

plane strain
Epitaxial layers
fins
X rays
x rays

Analysis of biexponential decay signals in the analog mean-delay fluorescence lifetime measurement method

Hwang, W., Kim, D., Lee, S., Won, Y. J., Moon, S. & Kim, D. Y., 2019 Jul 15, In : Optics Communications. 443, p. 136-143 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fluorescence
analogs
life (durability)
fluorescence
Microscopic examination

Analysis of convective heat transfer in channel flow with arbitrary rough surface

Ahn, J., Choi, J. & Kang, K., 2019 Mar 1, In : ZAMM Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik. 99, 3, e201700363.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Convective Heat Transfer
Channel Flow
Rough Surface
Channel flow
Rough
2 Citations (Scopus)

Analysis of conversion of Alzheimer’s disease using a multi-state Markov model

for the Key Laboratory of Applied Statistics of the Ministry of Education (KLAS) & and for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, 2019 Sep 1, In : Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 28, 9, p. 2801-2819 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Multi-state Model
Alzheimer's Disease
Apolipoprotein E4
Markov Model
Alzheimer Disease
1 Citation (Scopus)

Analysis of Defect Recovery in Reduced Graphene Oxide and Its Application as a Heater for Self-Healing Polymers

Kim, H. G., Oh, I. K., Lee, S., Jeon, S., Choi, H., Kim, K., Yang, J. H., Chung, J. W., Lee, J., Kim, W. H. & Lee, H. B. R., 2019 May 8, In : ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 11, 18, p. 16804-16814 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Graphite
Oxides
Graphene
Polymers
Recovery

Analysis of EMP Penetration into an Enclosure with Electromagnetic Shielding Material

Im, H. R., Jung, I. K., Yook, J. G. & Song, H. R., 2019 Jan 4, 2018 USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (Joint with AP-S Symposium), USNC-URSI 2018 - Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 31-32 2 p. 8602763. (2018 USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (Joint with AP-S Symposium), USNC-URSI 2018 - Proceedings).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

electromagnetic shielding
Electromagnetic shielding
racks
electromagnetic pulses
enclosure

Analysis of internal gas leaks in an MCFC system package for an LNG-fueled ship

Roh, G., Na, Y., Park, J. Y. & Kim, H., 2019 Jun 1, In : Applied Sciences (Switzerland). 9, 11, 2330.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
liquefied natural gas
molten carbonate fuel cells
Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC)
ships
Liquefied natural gas
1 Citation (Scopus)

Analysis of localized damping effects in channel flows with arbitrary rough boundary

Ahn, J., Choi, J. I., Kang, K. & Kim, J. M., 2019 Oct 3, In : Applicable Analysis. 98, 13, p. 2359-2377 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Channel Flow
Channel flow
Rough
Quadratic Approximation
Damping
2 Citations (Scopus)

Analysis of long-range transboundary transport (LRTT) effect on Korean aerosol pollution during the KORUS-AQ campaign

Lee, S., Kim, J., Choi, M., Hong, J., Lim, H., Eck, T. F., Holben, B. N., Ahn, J. Y., Kim, J. & Koo, J. H., 2019 May 1, In : Atmospheric Environment. 204, p. 53-67 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

air quality
optical depth
aerosol
pollution
geostationary satellite
1 Citation (Scopus)

Analysis of magnetic field harmonics change due to manufacturing error in air-core HTS quadruple magnet

Kim, J., Baek, G., Lee, J., Choi, Y., Han, S., Song, S. & Ko, T. K., 2019 Mar 1, In : Cryogenics. 98, p. 39-46 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Superconducting magnets
superconducting magnets
manufacturing
Magnetic fields
harmonics

Analysis of mining performance based on mathmatical approach of PoW

Yun, J., Goh, Y. & Chung, J. M., 2019 May 3, ICEIC 2019 - International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 8706374. (ICEIC 2019 - International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Miners
Defects
Industry
Electronic money

Analysis of neuromonitoring signal loss during retroauricular versus conventional thyroidectomy

Ban, M. J., Chang, E. H. E., Lee, D. Y., Park, J. H., Lee, C., Kim, D. H., Kim, J. H. & Koh, Y. W., 2019 Jan 1, In : Laryngoscope. 129, 9, p. 2199-2204 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vocal Cord Paralysis
Thyroidectomy
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries
Laryngoscopes
Vagus Nerve Stimulation

Analysis of patterns of failure and appraisal of postoperative radiation field for grade II–III meningioma

Lee, J. J. B., Lee, J., Yoon, H. I., Kim, S. H., Cho, J., Lee, K. S., Chang, J. H. & Suh, C. O., 2019 Sep 1, In : Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 144, 2, p. 333-341 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Meningioma
Radiotherapy
Radiation
Confidence Intervals
Neoplasms
3 Citations (Scopus)

Analysis of Protein-Protein Interaction in a Single Live Cell by Using a FRET System Based on Genetic Code Expansion Technology

Park, S. H., Ko, W., Lee, H. S. & Shin, I., 2019 Mar 13, In : Journal of the American Chemical Society. 141, 10, p. 4273-4281 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genetic Code
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
Technology
Proteins
Cell death

Analysis of recoverable residual image characteristics of flexible organic light-emitting diode displays using polyimide substrates

Hwang, H. W., Hong, S., Hwang, S. S., Kim, K. W., Ha, Y. M. & Kim, H. J., 2019 Jul, In : IEEE Electron Device Letters. 40, 7, p. 1108-1111 4 p., 8703817.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Organic light emitting diodes (OLED)
Polyimides
Display devices
Polysilicon
Substrates
1 Citation (Scopus)

Analysis of Risk Factors Associated with Hospital Readmission Within 360 Days After Degenerative Lumbar Spine Surgery in Elderly Patients

Lee, J. J., An, S. B., Kim, T. W., Shin, D. A., Yi, S., Kim, K. N., Yoon, D. H., Shin, H. C. & Ha, Y., 2019 Jun, In : World Neurosurgery. 126, p. e196-e207

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Patient Readmission
Spine
Intensive Care Units
Heart Diseases
Hemoglobins

Analysis of ssd internal cache problem in a key-value store system

Jeong, W. S., Won, Y. & Ro, W. W., 2019 Jan 10, Proceedings of the 2019 2nd International Conference on Software Engineering and Information Management, ICSIM 2019 - Workshop 2019 2nd International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing, ICBDSC 2019. Association for Computing Machinery, p. 59-62 4 p. (ACM International Conference Proceeding Series).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Degradation
Amplification
Recovery
1 Citation (Scopus)

Analysis of surgical approaches to skull base tumors involving the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa

Chung, H. J., Moon, I. S., Cho, H. J., Kim, C. H., Al Sharhan, S. S., Chang, J. H. & Yoon, J. H., 2019 Mar 1, In : Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 30, 2, p. 589-595 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pterygopalatine Fossa
Skull Base
Cicatrix
Neoplasms
Conductive Hearing Loss

Analysis of the emotional user experience elements of wireless earphones

Yoo, H. S. & Ju, D. Y., 2019 Jan 1, Advances in Interdisciplinary Practice in Industrial Design - Proceedings of the AHFE 2018 International Conference on Interdisciplinary Practice in Industrial Design, 2018. Shin, C. S. & Chung, W. (eds.). Springer Verlag, p. 247-255 9 p. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; vol. 790).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Earphones
Sales
Innovation
Debris
debris flow
Dams
dam
Flow velocity
Deforestation
Precipitation (meteorology)
Lakes
Sensors
Water levels

Analysis of Wake-Up Receivers of Direct RF Detection and tuned-RF Architecture

Kim, C., Lee, S. & Kim, T. W., 2019 Jun, 34th International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications, ITC-CSCC 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 8793345. (34th International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications, ITC-CSCC 2019).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Bit error rate
7 Citations (Scopus)

Analysis of walls of functional gypsum board added with porous material and phase change material to improve hygrothermal performance

Park, J. H., Kang, Y., Lee, J., Wi, S., Chang, J. D. & Kim, S., 2019 Jan 15, In : Energy and Buildings. 183, p. 803-816 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Phase change materials
Gypsum
Porous materials
Moisture
Thermal conductivity

Analysis of Water Pipe Structure Considering EMP Shielding Effectiveness

Kim, W., Kim, S. & Yook, J. G., 2019 Jan 4, 2018 USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (Joint with AP-S Symposium), USNC-URSI 2018 - Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 33-34 2 p. 8602493. (2018 USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (Joint with AP-S Symposium), USNC-URSI 2018 - Proceedings).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Electromagnetic pulse
electromagnetic pulses
Shielding
shielding
Pipe