A 1.2-V 8.3-nJ CMOS humidity sensor for RFID applications

Zhichao Tan, Roel Daamen, Aurelie Humbert, Youri V. Ponomarev, Youngcheol Chae, Michiel A.P. Pertijs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

83 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents a fully integrated CMOS humidity sensor for a smart RFID sensor platform. The sensing element is a CMOS-compatible capacitive humidity sensor, which consists of top-metal finger-structure electrodes covered by a humidity-sensitive polyimide layer. Its humidity-sensitive capacitance is digitized by an energy-efficient capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) based on a third-order delta-sigma modulator. This CDC employs current-efficient operational transconductance amplifiers based on current-starved cascoded inverters, whose limited output swing is accommodated by employing a feedforward loop-filter topology. A programmable offset capacitor is included to remove the sensor's baseline capacitance and thus reduce the required dynamic range. To reduce offset errors due to charge injection of the switches, the entire system is auto-zeroed. The proposed humidity sensor has been realized in a 0.16-$\mu{\hbox{m}}$ CMOS technology. Measurement results show that the CDC performs a 12.5-bit capacitance-to-digital conversion in a measurement time of 0.8 ms, while consuming only 8.6 $\mu{\hbox{A}} $ from a 1.2-V supply. This corresponds to a state-of-the-art figure-of-merit of 1.4 pJ/conversion-step. Combined with the co-integrated humidity sensing element, it provides a resolution of 0.05% RH in the range from 30% RH to 100% RH while consuming only 8.3 nJ per measurement, which is an order-of-magnitude less energy than the state-of-the-art.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6584794
Pages (from-to)2469-2477
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume48
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Aug 28

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Humidity sensors
Radio frequency identification (RFID)
Capacitance
Atmospheric humidity
Capacitive sensors
Charge injection
Operational amplifiers
Sensors
Time measurement
Polyimides
Modulators
Capacitors
Switches
Topology
Electrodes
Metals

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Tan, Z., Daamen, R., Humbert, A., Ponomarev, Y. V., Chae, Y., & Pertijs, M. A. P. (2013). A 1.2-V 8.3-nJ CMOS humidity sensor for RFID applications. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 48(10), 2469-2477. [6584794]. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2013.2275661
Tan, Zhichao ; Daamen, Roel ; Humbert, Aurelie ; Ponomarev, Youri V. ; Chae, Youngcheol ; Pertijs, Michiel A.P. / A 1.2-V 8.3-nJ CMOS humidity sensor for RFID applications. In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 2013 ; Vol. 48, No. 10. pp. 2469-2477.
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Tan, Z, Daamen, R, Humbert, A, Ponomarev, YV, Chae, Y & Pertijs, MAP 2013, 'A 1.2-V 8.3-nJ CMOS humidity sensor for RFID applications', IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 48, no. 10, 6584794, pp. 2469-2477. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2013.2275661

A 1.2-V 8.3-nJ CMOS humidity sensor for RFID applications. / Tan, Zhichao; Daamen, Roel; Humbert, Aurelie; Ponomarev, Youri V.; Chae, Youngcheol; Pertijs, Michiel A.P.

In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 48, No. 10, 6584794, 28.08.2013, p. 2469-2477.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Tan, Zhichao

AU - Daamen, Roel

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AB - This paper presents a fully integrated CMOS humidity sensor for a smart RFID sensor platform. The sensing element is a CMOS-compatible capacitive humidity sensor, which consists of top-metal finger-structure electrodes covered by a humidity-sensitive polyimide layer. Its humidity-sensitive capacitance is digitized by an energy-efficient capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) based on a third-order delta-sigma modulator. This CDC employs current-efficient operational transconductance amplifiers based on current-starved cascoded inverters, whose limited output swing is accommodated by employing a feedforward loop-filter topology. A programmable offset capacitor is included to remove the sensor's baseline capacitance and thus reduce the required dynamic range. To reduce offset errors due to charge injection of the switches, the entire system is auto-zeroed. The proposed humidity sensor has been realized in a 0.16-$\mu{\hbox{m}}$ CMOS technology. Measurement results show that the CDC performs a 12.5-bit capacitance-to-digital conversion in a measurement time of 0.8 ms, while consuming only 8.6 $\mu{\hbox{A}} $ from a 1.2-V supply. This corresponds to a state-of-the-art figure-of-merit of 1.4 pJ/conversion-step. Combined with the co-integrated humidity sensing element, it provides a resolution of 0.05% RH in the range from 30% RH to 100% RH while consuming only 8.3 nJ per measurement, which is an order-of-magnitude less energy than the state-of-the-art.

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Tan Z, Daamen R, Humbert A, Ponomarev YV, Chae Y, Pertijs MAP. A 1.2-V 8.3-nJ CMOS humidity sensor for RFID applications. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 2013 Aug 28;48(10):2469-2477. 6584794. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2013.2275661