This paper presents a CMOS time-of-flight (TOF) 3-D camera employing a column-level background light (BGL) suppression scheme for high-resolution outdoor imaging. The use of the column-level approach minimizes a pixel size for high-density pixel arrays. Pixel-binning and super-resolution can be adaptably applied for an optimal BGL suppression at given spatiotemporal resolutions. A prototype sensor has been fabricated by using 0.11 μm CMOS processes. The sensor achieved a fill factor of 24% in a pixel pitch of 5.9 μm which is the smallest among all the reported TOF cameras up to date. Measurement results showed the temporal noise of 1.47 cm-rms with a 100 ms integration time at a demodulation frequency of 12.5 MHz using a white target at 1 m distance. The non-linearity was measured as 1% over the range of 0.75 m ∼ 4 m. The BGL suppression over 100 klx was achieved from indoor and outdoor experiments, while the BGL-induced offset was maintained less than 2.6 cm under 0 ∼ 100 klx.
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© 1966-2012 IEEE.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering