A 40-m Range 90-frames/s CMOS Time-of-Flight Sensor Using SPAD and In-Pixel Time-Gated Pulse Counter

Byungchoul Park, Injun Park, Woojun Choi, Yoondeok Na, Youngcheol Chae

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This letter presents a CMOS indirect time-of-flight (i-ToF) image sensor, which is based on a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) and a compact in-pixel time-gated pulse counter. The proposed SPAD-based i-ToF sensor makes it possible to achieve a time-gated photon counting method at the pixel level and to enlarge a depth range up to 40 m while maintaining the pixel demodulation frequency up to 25 MHz. A prototype sensor is implemented in a 110-nm CMOS process and has a pixel array of $64\times64$ with a pixel pitch of $32~{\mu }\text{m}$. With a 3-D frame rate of 90 frames/s, the sensor achieves high 3-D image quality with a nonlinearity error below 2.25% and a relative precision error of 0.51% at a maximum distance of 40 m.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9201527
Pages (from-to)422-425
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received July 31, 2020; revised August 28, 2020; accepted September 13, 2020. Date of publication September 21, 2020; date of current version October 12, 2020. This article was approved by Associate Editor Jerald Yoo. This work was supported by Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program under Grant 10063436 funded by Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE, South Korea). (Corresponding author: Youngcheol Chae.) The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, South Korea (e-mail: ychae@yonesi.ac.kr). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LSSC.2020.3025625

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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