Objective: This study aimed to compare the frictional force (FR) in self-ligating brackets among different bracket-archwire angles, bracket materials, and archwire types. Methods: Passive and active metal self-ligating brackets and active ceramic self-ligating brackets were included as experimental groups, while conventional twin metal brackets served as a control group. All brackets were maxillary premolar brackets with 0.022 inch [in] slots and a -7o torque. The orthodontic wires used included 0.018 round and 0.019 × 0.025 in rectangular stainless steel wires. The FR was measured at 0o, 5o, and 10o angulations as the wire was drawn through the bracket slots after attaching brackets from each group to the universal testing machine. Static and kinetic FRs were also measured. Results: The passive self-ligating brackets generated a lower FR than all the other brackets. Static and kinetic FRs generally increased with an increase in the bracket-archwire angulation, and the rectangular wire caused significantly higher static and kinetic FRs than the round wire (p < 0.001). The metal passive self-ligating brackets exhibited the lowest static FR at the 0o angulation and a lower increase in static and kinetic FRs with an increase in bracket-archwire angulation than the other brackets, while the conventional twin brackets showed a greater increase than all three experimental brackets. Conclusions: The passive self-ligating brackets showed the lowest FR in this study. Self-ligating brackets can generate varying FRs in vitro according to the wire size, sur face characteristics, and bracket-archwire angulation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes