To study the turbulent convection and the interaction with radiation around the highly superadiabatic layer (SAL), the fully compressible hydrodynamics equations in conservative forms and the equation of radiative transport with the generalized three-dimensional Eddington approximation have been solved, utilizing the "alternating direction implicit on staggered mesh" technique. The computational domain spanned a total of 4.4 pressure scale heights initially, which included about 2 pressure scale heights of the surface radiative zone. A total of 26.2 hr of solar surface convection has been simulated. The structure and dynamics of the layer have been explored. The main characteristics of the region around the SAL are strong horizontal flows in the radiation zone, a modification in the stratification, and overshooting into the stable region.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We wish to acknowledge the invaluable contributions of P. Demarque and S. Sofia to the current research. This research has been supported in part by grants to HKUST and by NASA grants NAG5-2795 and NAG5-1486 to Yale University. Additional support has been provided in part by the Creative Research Initiative Program of the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. Computer time was provided in part by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science