A Lagrangian spectral parameterization of gravity wave drag (GWD) induced by cumulus convection (GWDC) is developed based on ray theory and several assumptions and implemented into the NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. The Lagrangian parameterization calculates explicitly gravity wave (GW) propagation that has been treated too simply in existing column-based parameterizations. For comparison with column-based parameterization, a hydrostatic and Boussinesq version of the Lagrangian parameterization is used in the present study. One-day convective GW-packet trajectories demonstrate that the Lagrangian parameterization calculates reasonably the GW-packet propagation, and GW packets propagate upward along curved paths determined by Doppler shifting and the variation of stability. The GW trajectories show that the horizontal extent of GW propagation can be as large as 20° as GWs approach critical levels. Comparison with column-based parameterization through one-month simulations indicates that the magnitude of GWDC is much increased due mainly to the vertical convergence of GW packets in the lower stratosphere and equatorial troposphere with the Lagrangian parameterization. However, this increase in GWDC is found to be essentially dependent on the horizontal propagation characteristics of GWs. In climate simulations, it is found that the easterly flow in the equatorial stratosphere and mesospheric subtropical jet are improved through the Lagrangian parameterization. With the Lagrangian parameterization, interannual variability is significantly enhanced in the equatorial lower stratosphere and exhibits a structure related to the onset of the westerly phase of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillations. Finally, limitations of the current Lagrangian parameterization and required improvements are noted.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science