A Low-Power 40-Gb/s Pre-Emphasis PAM-4 Transmitter with Toggling Serializers

Dae Hyun Kwon, Minkyu Kim, Sung Geun Kim, Woo Young Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We demonstrate a 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter having 2-tap pre-emphasis, whose power consumption is significantly reduced by the use of toggling serializers. In addition, a new type of PAM-4 source-series terminated driver is proposed, which enables an easy control of pre-emphasis gain while maintaining impedance matching. A prototype 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter containing these circuit ideas are successfully realized in 28-nm CMOS technology. It occupies 0.006 mm2 and achieves energy efficiencies of 1.2 pJ/bit for 40-Gb/s operation without any pre-emphasis, and 1.68 pJ/bit with 9.54 dB pre-emphasis gain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8734109
Pages (from-to)400-434
Number of pages35
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Mar

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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