We demonstrate a 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter having 2-tap pre-emphasis, whose power consumption is significantly reduced by the use of toggling serializers. In addition, a new type of PAM-4 source-series terminated driver is proposed, which enables an easy control of pre-emphasis gain while maintaining impedance matching. A prototype 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter containing these circuit ideas are successfully realized in 28-nm CMOS technology. It occupies 0.006 mm2 and achieves energy efficiencies of 1.2 pJ/bit for 40-Gb/s operation without any pre-emphasis, and 1.68 pJ/bit with 9.54 dB pre-emphasis gain.
|Number of pages||35|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs|
|Publication status||Published - 2020 Mar|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received April 17, 2019; accepted June 7, 2019. Date of publication June 10, 2019; date of current version March 4, 2020. This work was supported in part by the Samsung Electronics, Materials and Parts Technology Research and Development Program funded by the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy under Project 10065666, and in part by the Graduate School of Yonsei University Research Scholarship Grants. This brief was recommended by Associate Editor W. Namgoong. (Corresponding author: Woo-Young Choi.) D.-H. Kwon, M. Kim, and W.-Y. Choi are with the High-Speed Circuits and Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, South Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
This work was supported in part by the Samsung Electronics, Materials and Parts Technology Research and Development Program funded by the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy under Project 10065666, and in part by the Graduate School of Yonsei University Research Scholarship Grants.
© 2004-2012 IEEE.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering