In this paper, we report a miniaturized low-power wireless remote environmental monitoring system. This system has been developed for on-site monitoring of water pollution by heavy-metal ions. The system is composed of three parts: an electrochemical sensor module using microfabricated electrodes for detecting heavy-metal contamination in sample water; a custom potentiostat module including readout circuitry, analog-to-digital converter and microcontroller; and a radio frequency (RF) module for sending detected signals to a base station through wireless communication. The electrochemical sensor module is implemented using microfabricated mercury working electrodes (WEs), solid-state reference electrode (SSRE), and platinum counter electrode (CE). For the low-power operation, direct frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation and simple binary FSK demodulation methods are used for RF module which is realized using 0.18μm CMOS technology. All the modules are hybrid integrated in a printed circuit board (PCB) and low-power consumption below 1mW has been achieved.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work has been supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation through the MICROS center at KAIST.
Kwyro Lee received the BS Degree in Electronics Engineering from Seoul National University in 1976 and the MS and PhD degrees from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis in 1981 and 1983 respectively, where he did many pioneering works for characterization and modeling of AlGaAs/GaAs Heterojunction Field Effect Transistor. After graduation, he worked as an Engineering General Manager in GoldStar Semiconductor Inc. Korea, from 1983 to 1986, responsible for development of first polysilicon CMOS products in Korea. He joined KAIST in 1987 as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, where he is now a Professor. He has more than 150 publications in major international journals and conferences. He is the principal author of the book titled, “Semiconductor Device Modeling for VLSI”, 1993, Prentice Hall, America and one of the co-developers of AIM-Spice, the world’s first SPICE run under windows. He is a Senior Member of IEEE and a Life Member of IEEK. During 90-96, he served as the Conference Co-Chair of International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, Charlottesville, VA, USA. During 1998–2000, he served as the KAIST Dean of Research Affairs as well as the Dean of Institute Development and Cooperation. During the same periods, he also served as the Chairman of IEEE Korea Electron Device Chapter and is currently serving as the elected member of EDS AdCom. Since 1997, he has been working as the Director of MICROS (Micro Information and Communication Remote-object Oriented Systems) Research Center, an Engineering Center of Excellence supported by Korea Science and Engineering Foundation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Metals and Alloys
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Materials Chemistry