Cytoskeletal keratin 18 (K18) undergoes caspase-mediated digestion during apoptosis, which leads to dramatic disassembly of keratin filaments. We studied the significance of K18 caspase digestion in a mouse model and generated transgenic mice expressing the human K18 caspase digestion-resistant double-mutant K18-D238/397E in a mouse (m) K18-null background, and compared their response to injury mediated by administration of antibody against tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamilymember 6 (Fas), anti-FasAb. Notably, K18-D238/ 397E;mK18-null mice were significantly more resistant to anti-FasAbinduced injury as compared with K18-WT;mK18-null mice (23% vs 57% lethality, respectively; P < 0.001). The same applied when the toxin microcystin-LR (MLR) was used to induce liver injury, i.e. lethality of K18-D238/397E;mK18-null mice in response to MLR treatment was reduced compared with the control mouse strain. The lesser rate of apoptosis in K18-D238/397E;mK18-null livers is associated with delayed degradation and, thus, sustained activation of cell-survival-related protein kinases, including stress-activated protein kinases and the NF-κB transcription factor, up to 6-8 h after administration of anti-FasAb. However, activation of the kinases and NF-κB in K18-WT-reconstituted livers decreases dramatically 8 h after anti-FasAb administration. In addition, theD238/397E double-mutation results in prolonged stability of K18 protein in transfected cells and transgenic livers. Therefore, our results show that the caspase digestion-resistant K18 helps to maintain keratin filament organization and delays apoptosis, thereby resulting in protection from liver injury.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Dr Thomas Magin for providing us with the K18-null mice and Dr Bishr Omary (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA) for providing us with the heterozygous K18-WT and K18-D238/397E transgenic mice. This work was supported by the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (grant number 2016R1A2B4012808 to N.-O.K.).
© 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology