In order to implement an optimized solution for cell range expansion (CRE) and enhanced intercell interference coordination (eICIC) schemes in long-term evolution-advanced (LTE-A) heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) and to realize good load-balancing performance in existing LTE-A systems, a practical tessellation-based algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, a globalized cell-specific bias optimization and a localized almost blank subframe (ABS) ratio update are proposed. The proposed scheme does not require major changes to existing protocols. Thus, it can be implemented in existing LTE-A systems with any legacy user equipment (UE) with only a partial update to the BSS and core networks. From simulation results, it is shown that the tessellation formed by the proposed approach is quite consistent with the optimal one for various realistic scenarios. Thus, the proposed scheme can provide a much better load-balancing capability compared with the conventional common bias scheme. Owing to the improved load-balancing capability, the user rate distribution of the proposed scheme is much better than that obtained from the conventional scheme and is even indistinguishable from that of the ideal joint user association scheme.
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