Objectives: Message fatigue, a phenomenon of being tired of repeated exposure to messages promoting the same health behavior, may reduce the effectiveness of anti-tobacco messages, such as warning labels. As an initial step towards understanding the phenomenon, we examined predictors of anti-tobacco message fatigue. Methods: An online study (N = 1838) involving a non-probability sample of nonsmokers and smokers in the United States assessed anti-tobacco message fatigue and individual-level factors including demographic variables and smoking status. General linear models were used to analyze the data. Results: The multivariable results show that individuals who were younger, male, and had higher income and education reported higher levels of anti-tobacco message fatigue. African Americans reported significantly lower levels of message fatigue than other racial groups. Current smokers reported greater message fatigue than transitioning smokers and nonsmokers. Among current smokers, those with greater nicotine dependence reported higher levels of anti-tobacco message fatigue. Conclusions: These findings underscore the importance of segmenting the audience based on their levels of message fatigue and using more novel message strategies and delivery methods to influence populations with relatively higher levels of anti-tobacco message fatigue.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Tobacco Products (R00CA187460) supported this work. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or the Food and Drug Administration.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health(social science)
- Social Psychology
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health