A reverse logistics model with eco-design under the Stackelberg-Nash equilibrium and centralized framework

Neha Saxena, Biswajit Sarkar, Hui Ming Wee, Samuel Reong, S. R. Singh, Y. L. Hsiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Due to the rising consumer concern and business responsibilities towards the environment, a closed-loop supply chain with a green design is considered. Reverse logistics and return policies are receiving more attention due to increasing consumer concerns and corporate responsibility toward the environment. Hence, this article presents a sustainable supply chain model for waste reduction incorporating reverse logistics operations. A suitable return policy is discussed here for deteriorating items, incorporating an eco-design framework. Since carbon emissions are a major environmental issue, a penalty tax for polluting is introduced to reduce carbon emissions. This model considers the cost of carbon emissions due to transportation, storage, production, landfilling, building construction, power supply, and loading/unloading. Unlike previous studies, this study investigates and compares three optimization techniques based on cooperative and non-cooperative associations. The mathematical formulation has been provided with different lemmas, theorems, and algorithms. By investigating end-of-life policies, it is shown that reused products can result in more profits for a company. A product usually becomes useless and non-recoverable after four uses. However, the product's reusability can be increased by investing more in the design stage of the item.

Original languageEnglish
Article number135789
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb 10

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported (in part) by the Yonsei University Research Fund (Yonsei Frontier Lab. Yonsei Frontier Program for Outstanding Scholars) of 2021 .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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