A review of the relationship between viscosity and the structure of calcium-silicate-based slags in ironmaking

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This review focuses on elucidating the viscosity of ironmaking slags and the effect of various components in the multi-component calcium-silicate-based slag system on the viscosity. Using various widely used spectroscopic techniques including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the viscous behavior and the slag structure of this system were correlated. In particular, the review begins with an introduction to the viscous behavior of binary silicate systems and an identification of the intricate details of the slag structure. Using the binary system as a basis, the compounded effect of typical ironmaking slag components such as Al 2O 3, MgO, alkali oxides, and TiO 2 on the viscosity is introduced through expansion to a quinary slag system. Using a combination of the aforementioned spectroscopic methods, the meticulous details of the slag structure were ascertained, and the depolymerization or polymerization mechanisms of the silicate and alumino-silicate structures were subsequently identified. This review also compares well-known viscosity prediction models with experimentally measured values and identifies potential fields of research in the ironmaking industry associated with slag viscosities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)611-630
Number of pages20
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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