A review on lignin structure, pretreatments, fermentation reactions and biorefinery potential

Vinoth Kumar Ponnusamy, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Jeyaprakash Dharmaraja, Sutha Shobana, J. Rajesh Banu, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Soon Woong Chang, Gopalakrishnan Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

41 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years, lignin valorization is commercially an important and advanced sustainable process for lignocellulosic biomass-based industries, primarily through the depolymerization path. The conversion of the lignin moieties into biofuels and other high value-added products are still challenging to the researchers due to the heterogeneity and complex structure of lignin-containing biomass. Besides, the involvement of different microorganisms that carries varying metabolic and enzymatic complex systems towards degradation and conversion of the lignin moieties also discussed. These microorganisms are frequently short of the traits which are obligatory for the industrial application to achieve maximum yields and productivity. This review mainly focuses on the current progress and developments in the pretreatment routes for enhancing lignin degradation and also assesses the liquid and gaseous biofuel production by fermentation, gasification and hybrid technologies along with the biorefinery schemes which involves the synthesis of high value-added chemicals, biochar and other valuable products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)462-472
Number of pages11
JournalBioresource technology
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal

Cite this

Ponnusamy, V. K., Nguyen, D. D., Dharmaraja, J., Shobana, S., Banu, J. R., Saratale, R. G., Chang, S. W., & Kumar, G. (2019). A review on lignin structure, pretreatments, fermentation reactions and biorefinery potential. Bioresource technology, 271, 462-472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.09.070