In recent years, lignin valorization is commercially an important and advanced sustainable process for lignocellulosic biomass-based industries, primarily through the depolymerization path. The conversion of the lignin moieties into biofuels and other high value-added products are still challenging to the researchers due to the heterogeneity and complex structure of lignin-containing biomass. Besides, the involvement of different microorganisms that carries varying metabolic and enzymatic complex systems towards degradation and conversion of the lignin moieties also discussed. These microorganisms are frequently short of the traits which are obligatory for the industrial application to achieve maximum yields and productivity. This review mainly focuses on the current progress and developments in the pretreatment routes for enhancing lignin degradation and also assesses the liquid and gaseous biofuel production by fermentation, gasification and hybrid technologies along with the biorefinery schemes which involves the synthesis of high value-added chemicals, biochar and other valuable products.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank the Ministry of Science and Technology-Taiwan ( MOST105-2113-M-037-019-MY2 ), Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU)-Taiwan and Research Center for Environmental Medicine-KMU for research grant supports. Author GK would like to acknowledge the financial assistance from Ton Duc Thang University, Vietnam. This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning ( KETEP ) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20173010092470 ). One of the author RGS acknowledge Dongguk University Seoul, South Korea under research fund 2018–2020.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal