Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are an important waste product millions of tons generated from coffee consumption and could be effectively utilized for various applications due to their high organic content. SCG can be used as a potential feedstock to develop coffee–based biorefinery towards value–added products generation through various biotechnological processes. Considerable developments have been reported on emerging SCG-based processes/products in various environmental fields such as removal of heavy metals and cationic dyes and in wastewater treatment. In addition, SCG are also utilized to produce biochar and biofuels. This review addressed the details of innovative processes used to produce polymers and catalysts from SCG. Moreover, the application of these developed products is provided and future directions of the circular economy for SCG utilization.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Science and ICT, MSIT). (NRF–2017R1E1A1A01073690). Author GDS is thankful to Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea under research fund 2018–2020.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal