A simultaneous stabilization and solidification of the top five most toxic heavy metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cr, and Cd)

Hyun Taek Kim, Tai Gyu Lee

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19 Citations (Scopus)


A novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) binder was developed for the simultaneous treatment of the top five most toxic heavy metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cr, and Cd). Various CBPC binders were synthesized and tested, and their toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) values were obtained. A magnesium/calcium-potassium phosphate ceramic binder with FeCl2 (M/C-KP-FeCl2) simultaneously stabilized multiple heavy metals. The TCLP value of the final product for industrial waste (IW) treatment using the M/C-KP-FeCl2 technology was well below the Universal Treatment Standard (UTS). Additionally, the compressive strength of the final product was below the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-485
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

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