A single-stage manufacturing model with imperfect items, inspections, rework, and planned backorders

Chang Wook Kang, Misbah Ullah, Mitali Sarkar, Muhammad Omair, Biswajit Sarkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Each industry prefers to sell perfect products in order to maintain its brand image. However, due to a long-run single-stage production system, the industry generally obtains obstacles. To solve this issue, a single-stage manufacturing model is formulated to make a perfect production system without defective items. For this, the industry decides to stop selling any products until whole products are ready to fulfill the order quantity. Furthermore, manufacturing managers prefer product qualification from the inspection station especially when processes are imperfect. The purpose of the proposed manufacturing model considers that the customer demands are not fulfilled during the production phase due to imperfection in the process, however customers are satisfied either at the end of the inspection process or after reworking the imperfect products. Rework operation, inspection process, and planned backordering are incorporated in the proposed model. An analytical approach is utilized to optimize the lot size and planned backorder quantities based on the minimum average cost. Numerical examples are used to illustrate and compare the proposed model with previously developed models. The proposed model is considered more beneficial in comparison with the existing models as it incorporates imperfection, rework, inspection rate, and planned backorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number446
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2019 May 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Author Contributions: C.W.K. supervised the research work and presented an idea; B.S. conceived and designed the research plan by the support of mathematical modeling; M.U. performed the numerical experiments and wrote the original draft; M.S. analyzed the data; M.O. contributed by computer software tool to get numerical results. All authors worked equally in reporting revisions and updating the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mathematics(all)

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