Little is known about the principles of surface structure design for orthopedic and dental implants. To find topographical groove patterns that could enhance osteoblast differentiation according to cell type, groove patterns are fabricated with ridges (0.35−7 µm) and grooves (0.65−6 µm) of various widths and explored their mechanisms in improving osteoblast differentiation. This study finds that a groove pattern enhancing osteoblast differentiation is associated with the ability of the cell to extend its length and that it is able to overcome the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation that takes place under inflammatory conditions. The groove pattern suppresses the generation of reactive oxygen species, a reaction that is increased in inflammatory conditions. It also modulates the expression of osteogenic factors according to differentiation time. Importantly, specific groove patterns AZ-2 and AZ-4, with ridge width of 2 µm and groove width of 2 or 4 µm, respectively, effectively promote bone regeneration in critical-sized calvarial defects without additional factors. This knowledge of groove patterns can be applied to the development of orthopedic and dental devices.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
C.-S.K., J.-H.K., Y.-S.P., and B.K. contributed equally to this work. The authors thank Prof. Kyung Mi Woo (Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea) and Tae Hyun Choi (Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea) for their critical discussions and comments. The original manuscript was greatly improved by their comments. This work was supported in part by the Nano-Material Technology Development Program (grant 2014M3A7B4052194 to H.-R.K.); the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning; grant 2015R1C1A2A01051790 to J.-H.K.); and by the Seoul National University Hospital Research Fund (grant 0320140330, 2014-1245 to H.-R.K.). The affiliations section of this article was updated on November 24, 2017 after previous online publication.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics