A study on the heat and mass balance of smelting reduction process for manganese nodules

Moon Kyung Cho, Kyung Ho Park, Dong Joon Min

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Recently, manganese nodule has been focused on alternative resources because of its high grade of noble metallic elements such as Co, Ni, and Cu etc. From the viewpoint of an optimization the operating variables for energy efficiency of smelting reduction process, thermodynamic model for smelting reduction process of Manganese nodule was developed by using energy and material balance concept. This model provided that specific consumption of pure oxygen and coke was strongly depended on post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE). The dressing and dehydrating process of low grade manganese can be proposed an essential process to minimize the specific energy consumption with decreasing slag volume. The effect of electricity coal base smelting reduction process was also discussed from the energy optimizing point of view.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)304-310
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Korean Institute of Metals and Materials
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2009 May

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys


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