A study on the transition mechanism of a stratus cloud into a warm sea fog using a single column model PAFOG coupled with WRF

Chang Ki Kim, Seong Soo Yum

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The transition mechanism of stratus cloud into warm sea fog over the Yellow Sea near the western coastal area of the Korean Peninsula is investigated using numerical simulation with a 1D turbulence model, PAFOG, coupled with a 3D regional model, WRF. The coupled model system was run in the two approaches, Eulerian and Lagrangian. For the selected warm sea fog case, the model results in the Eulerian approach showed that the bottom of the stratus cloud was lowered by cooling of the air just below the cloud base by turbulent heat loss. The Lagrangian approach showed the lowering of the stratus cloud top, owing to the evaporation of cloud droplets in this region by the entrainment of warm and dry air above the cloud top. The sensitivity test to SST indicated that the timing of water vapor saturation just below the cloud base depended on the magnitude of the turbulent heat flux from the sea surface. The subsidence rate was found to be important: when the subsidence rate was set to be half of the prescribed value, neither the lowering of the stratus cloud top nor the bottom occurred and the model could not produce a fog.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-257
Number of pages13
JournalAsia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
Volume49
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan 1

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stratus
fog
subsidence
cloud droplet
air
sea
entrainment
heat flux
sea surface
water vapor
sea surface temperature
evaporation
turbulence
saturation
cooling
simulation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

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title = "A study on the transition mechanism of a stratus cloud into a warm sea fog using a single column model PAFOG coupled with WRF",
abstract = "The transition mechanism of stratus cloud into warm sea fog over the Yellow Sea near the western coastal area of the Korean Peninsula is investigated using numerical simulation with a 1D turbulence model, PAFOG, coupled with a 3D regional model, WRF. The coupled model system was run in the two approaches, Eulerian and Lagrangian. For the selected warm sea fog case, the model results in the Eulerian approach showed that the bottom of the stratus cloud was lowered by cooling of the air just below the cloud base by turbulent heat loss. The Lagrangian approach showed the lowering of the stratus cloud top, owing to the evaporation of cloud droplets in this region by the entrainment of warm and dry air above the cloud top. The sensitivity test to SST indicated that the timing of water vapor saturation just below the cloud base depended on the magnitude of the turbulent heat flux from the sea surface. The subsidence rate was found to be important: when the subsidence rate was set to be half of the prescribed value, neither the lowering of the stratus cloud top nor the bottom occurred and the model could not produce a fog.",
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AU - Kim, Chang Ki

AU - Yum, Seong Soo

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N2 - The transition mechanism of stratus cloud into warm sea fog over the Yellow Sea near the western coastal area of the Korean Peninsula is investigated using numerical simulation with a 1D turbulence model, PAFOG, coupled with a 3D regional model, WRF. The coupled model system was run in the two approaches, Eulerian and Lagrangian. For the selected warm sea fog case, the model results in the Eulerian approach showed that the bottom of the stratus cloud was lowered by cooling of the air just below the cloud base by turbulent heat loss. The Lagrangian approach showed the lowering of the stratus cloud top, owing to the evaporation of cloud droplets in this region by the entrainment of warm and dry air above the cloud top. The sensitivity test to SST indicated that the timing of water vapor saturation just below the cloud base depended on the magnitude of the turbulent heat flux from the sea surface. The subsidence rate was found to be important: when the subsidence rate was set to be half of the prescribed value, neither the lowering of the stratus cloud top nor the bottom occurred and the model could not produce a fog.

AB - The transition mechanism of stratus cloud into warm sea fog over the Yellow Sea near the western coastal area of the Korean Peninsula is investigated using numerical simulation with a 1D turbulence model, PAFOG, coupled with a 3D regional model, WRF. The coupled model system was run in the two approaches, Eulerian and Lagrangian. For the selected warm sea fog case, the model results in the Eulerian approach showed that the bottom of the stratus cloud was lowered by cooling of the air just below the cloud base by turbulent heat loss. The Lagrangian approach showed the lowering of the stratus cloud top, owing to the evaporation of cloud droplets in this region by the entrainment of warm and dry air above the cloud top. The sensitivity test to SST indicated that the timing of water vapor saturation just below the cloud base depended on the magnitude of the turbulent heat flux from the sea surface. The subsidence rate was found to be important: when the subsidence rate was set to be half of the prescribed value, neither the lowering of the stratus cloud top nor the bottom occurred and the model could not produce a fog.

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