This study has developed a product model based on ISO 10303 to overcome problems such as data loss during transferring and sharing project data. The developed product model electronically represents three-dimensional shapes, structural analysis and structural design information of steel bridges. The product model for semantic description of a steel bridge is employed as data structure of an integrated database management system (DBMS) by which steel bridge information can be managed and operated. The DBMS can be made to release restraints such as each different location and heterogeneous computer environments. End-users may be able to freely access steel bridge information of the DBMS on the network. This study also presents a framework for practical management of steel bridge information generated from existing tools by using open standards and web technology. An integrated computer environment can be built by applying this framework composed of product model, data repository, application modules, and programming interfaces to civil engineering fields.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
In the construction industry, the development of open standards has made considerable progress with respect to building product model [6,31] . Gielingh  proposed a model called the general architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) reference model (GARM) in the 1988. Parts of GARM were used in the development of a model for roads. Despite the relatively limited used of GARM in practical modeling, it had been rather influential for a number of years  . Luiten et al.  proposed a new model, the integration reference model architecture (IRMA). The IRMA model contained four basic entities, which were product, process, resource, and control entity. The four basic entities can be seen as the root entities of the complete set of applications in the building and construction area. Björk  developed the RATAS model, which presented the framework for the semantic specification of a building product model. This model has not been broadly accepted by software vendors. On the other hand, Crowley and Watson  provided, as a representative practical example of product model, the CIMsteel integration standard (CIS) specification as an output of the CIMsteel project. The CIMsteel project was conducted as a part of the ESPRIT program sponsored by the European Community, to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the European construction steelwork industry. The logical product model (LPM) within the CIS specification has been internationally used as a product model for the representation of steel structural buildings. Integrated data model (IDM) was also developed by the COMBINE project, the energy modeling part of the JOULE Programme funded by the European Union. The IDM combines a number of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) tools through multi-disciplinary integration [2,6] . ISO TC184/SC4  , a technical committee of ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for industrial automation system and integration, presented an application protocol (AP) for the exchange of building element shapes, properties, and spatial configuration information among the AEC application systems and related systems using explicit three-dimensional shape representations. Yu et al.  presented a framework for the development of computer-integrated facilities management (CIFM) environments based on industry foundation classes (IFCs) and facilities management classes (FMCs). These product models related to building structures have proposed foundations for the development of an integrated computer environment.
This study has been performed under the auspices of Korea Bridge Design and Engineering Research Center sponsored by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation through Korea Institute of Construction and Transportation Technology Evaluation and Planning. We sincerely appreciate their help and concern throughout this study.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Building and Construction