Objective Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) and benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) are uncommon variants of benign uterine leiomyomas with extrauterine manifestations. Categorizing the extent of disease allows clinicians to delineate the clinical spectrum and the level of sophistication for complete surgical resection. Methods Twelve patients with IVL and BML were reviewed. They were divided into early versus late stage disease groups, and initial manifestation, clinical characteristics, laboratory values, surgical pathology, and follow up data were summarized. Results Patients were mostly pre- or peri-menopausal and parous. Patients with late stage disease were more likely to present with cardiac symptoms or abnormal findings on chest X-ray, whereas those with early stage disease presented with classical leiomyoma symptoms including heavy menstrual bleeding, increased myoma size, or lower abdominal discomfort. Tumor marker levels were within normal ranges. A trend of higher neutrophil to leukocyte ratio was observed in the late versus the early stage group (10.4 vs. 1.51, P=0.07); the platelet leukocyte ratio was statistically higher in patients with late stage IVL (0.23 vs. 0.13, P=0.04). The overall recurrence rate was 25%. No recurrence was observed in stage I or stage III IVL groups, while 50% of the stage II IVL group showed recurrence in the pelvic cavity. Conclusion IVL and BML are benign myoma variants with paradoxically metastatic clinical presentation. Careful inquiry of systemic symptoms, the presence of underlying systemic inflammation, and a high index of suspicion are required for preoperative diagnosis. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to improve outcomes of surgical resection.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology