BackgroundWe investigated whether Makorin ring finger protein 1 (MKRN1), an E3 ligase, affects p14ARF-associated cellular senescence and tumorigenesis by posttranslational modification in gastric tumorigenesis.MethodsA link between MKRN1 and ARF was examined in MKRN1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and in human fibroblasts and gastric cancer cells by silencing MKRN1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation assays were used to assess p14ARF degradation associated with MKRN1. MKRN1 and p14ARF expression levels were analyzed with immunohistochemistry in malignant and normal tissues from gastric cancer patients and with χ2 tests. The tumor growth of gastric cancer cells stably expressing MKRN1 shRNA, p14ARF shRNA, or both was examined in mouse xenograft models (n 4-6) and analyzed with unpaired t tests. All statistical tests were two-sided.ResultsMKRN1 knockout MEFs exhibited premature senescence and growth retardation with increased p19ARF protein expression. Similar results were obtained for human fibroblasts or gastric cancer cell lines by MKRN1 knockdown. Biochemical analyses confirmed that MKRN1 targets p14ARF for ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation. A statistically significant association was shown between MKRN1 overexpression and p14ARF underexpression (P . 016). Xenograft analyses using p53-functional AGS or -dysfunctional SNU601 cells displayed statistically significant tumor growth retardation by silencing MKRN1, which was reversed under depletion of p14ARF (AGS cells, MKRN1 knockdown tumors vs MKRN1 and p14ARF knockdown tumors: 164.6 vs 464.8mm3, difference 300.2mm3, 95% CI 189.1 to 411.3mm3, P <. 001).ConclusionsWe demonstrated that MKRN1 functions as a novel E3 ligase of p14ARF and that it potentially regulates cellular senescence and tumorigenesis in gastric cancer.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (2010-0017787) and by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2009-0087610).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research