Extensive drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDRPA) strains, defined as resistant to all available antipseudomonal antibiotics, have been reported recently. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for XDRPA acquisition by patients and the resistance mechanisms to carbapenems. From June to November 2007, XDRPA isolates were collected from patients in eight tertiary care hospitals. A case-control study was performed to determine factors associated with XDRPA acquisition. EDTA-imipenem disc synergy tests, and polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing were performed to detect the presence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Risk factor analysis was performed for 33 patients. Mechanical ventilation [odds ratio (OR) 8.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-52.2; P=0.026] and APACHE II score (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.3; P=0.007) were identified as independent risk factors for XDRPA acquisition. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XDRPA identified clonal epidemic isolates co-existing with sporadic isolates. Eight of 43 (19%) XDRPA isolates were shown to produce MBLs; four produced VIM-2 and four produced IMP-6. This study suggests a major role for mechanical ventilation in XDRPA acquisition. Moreover, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified a clonal epidemic within hospitals. Taken together, these results suggest that patient-to-patient transmission contributes to XDRPA acquisition in Korea.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was partly supported by the National Institute of Health, Korea Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant No. 2007-S3-G-004 ).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases