Objectives Implant osteotomy yields a substantial amount of bone in the form of bone chips entrapped within drill flutes, and can provide a promising cell source for tissue engineering. The aims of this study were to isolate human alveolar bone-derived stromal cells (hABCs) obtained during implant osteotomy, and to evaluate osteogenic differentiation capacity of hABCs. Material and methods Bone chips were obtained by minimally irrigated implant drilling technique from 10 human donors. Isolated cells were studied with respect to their colony-forming efficiency, surface marker expression by immunofluorescence staining, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and self-renewal potency. To verify the differentiation activity, in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic gene expressions were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro formation of mineralized nodule and adipocytes was also evaluated. In vivo bone-forming activity was assessed by ectopic transplantation in immunocompromised mice (n = 5). Results Human alveolar bone-derived stromal cells population with characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells was present in the isolated cells. Upon hABC transplantation, significant ectopic bone formation was induced with the characteristics of fully matured bone tissue. Conclusion The data support the feasibility of using hABCs as a source of stem cells for dentoalveolar bone tissue reconstruction. The cell source has an advantage that the hABCs can be easily acquired during implant surgery.
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