Background: Active tuberculosis (TB) risk increases during anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy; therefore, latent TB infection (LTBI) screening is recommended in potential TNF inhibitor users. It is unclear whether anti-TNF therapy increases the risk of active TB infection even after standard LTBI treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the risk of active TB development in LTBI-positive versus LBTI-negative TNF inhibitor users following the current national LTBI treatment guidelines for LTBI. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 949 TNF inhibitor users with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases from 2005 to 2012 at the Yonsei University Health System. We compared the incidence of active TB among LTBI-positive TNF inhibitor users treated according to national guidelines (n = 256) and LTBI-negative TNF inhibitor users (n = 521), using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The active TB incidence was 1107 per 100,000 patient-years in LTBI-positive TNF inhibitor users who received standard LTBI treatment and 490 per 100,000 patient-years in LTBI-negative TNF inhibitor users. Analysis showed that despite this numerical trend active TB risk was not statistically significantly elevated in LTBI-positive versus LTBI-negative TNF inhibitor users (incidence risk ratio, 2.15; P = 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-7.7). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated no statistically significantly increased risk of active TB in LTBI-positive TNF inhibitor users who received standard LTBI treatment compared with LTBI-negative TNF inhibitor users.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes