In this paper, we study asynchronous federated learning (FL) in a wireless distributed learning network (WDLN). To allow each edge device to use its local data more efficiently via asynchronous FL, transmission scheduling in the WDLN for asynchronous FL should be carefully determined considering system uncertainties, such as time-varying channel and stochastic data arrivals, and the scarce radio resources in the WDLN. To address this, we propose a metric, called an effectivity score, which represents the amount of learning from asynchronous FL. We then formulate an Asynchronous Learning-aware transmission Scheduling (ALS) problem to maximize the effectivity score and develop three ALS algorithms, called ALSA-PI, BALSA, and BALSA-PO, to solve it. If the statistical information about the uncertainties is known, the problem can be optimally and efficiently solved by ALSA-PI. Even if not, it can be still optimally solved by BALSA that learns the uncertainties based on a Bayesian approach using the state information reported from devices. BALSA-PO suboptimally solves the problem, but it addresses a more restrictive WDLN in practice, where the AP can observe a limited state information compared with the information used in BALSA. We show via simulations that the models trained by our ALS algorithms achieve performances close to that by an ideal benchmark and outperform those by other state-of-the-art baseline scheduling algorithms in terms of model accuracy, training loss, learning speed, and robustness of learning. These results demonstrate that the adaptive scheduling strategy in our ALS algorithms is effective to asynchronous FL.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Dec 1|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 1983-2012 IEEE.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering