ADAR-Mediated RNA Editing Predicts Progression and Prognosis of Gastric Cancer

Tim Hon Man Chan, Aditi Qamra, Kar Tong Tan, Jing Guo, Henry Yang, Lihua Qi, Jaymie Siqi Lin, Vanessa Hui En Ng, Yangyang Song, Huiqi Hong, Su Ting Tay, Yujing Liu, Jeeyun Lee, Sun Yong Rha, Feng Zhu, Jimmy Bok Yan So, Bin Tean Teh, Khay Guan Yeoh, Steve Rozen, Daniel G. TenenPatrick Tan, Leilei Chen

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Abstract

Backgroud & Aims Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of global cancer mortality. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is a recently described novel epigenetic mechanism involving sequence alterations at the RNA but not DNA level, primarily mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase that act on RNA) enzymes. Emerging evidence suggests a role for RNA editing and ADARs in cancer, however, the relationship between RNA editing and GC development and progression remains unknown. Methods In this study, we leveraged on the next-generation sequencing transcriptomics to demarcate the GC RNA editing landscape and the role of ADARs in this deadly malignancy. Results Relative to normal gastric tissues, almost all GCs displayed a clear RNA misediting phenotype with ADAR1/2 dysregulation arising from the genomic gain and loss of the ADAR1 and ADAR2 gene in primary GCs, respectively. Clinically, patients with GCs exhibiting ADAR1/2 imbalance demonstrated extremely poor prognoses in multiple independent cohorts. Functionally, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that ADAR-mediated RNA misediting is closely associated with GC pathogenesis, with ADAR1 and ADAR2 playing reciprocal oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles through their catalytic deaminase domains, respectively. Using an exemplary target gene PODXL (podocalyxin-like), we demonstrate that the ADAR2-regulated recoding editing at codon 241 (His to Arg) confers a loss-of-function phenotype that neutralizes the tumorigenic ability of the unedited PODXL. Conclusions Our study highlights a major role for RNA editing in GC disease and progression, an observation potentially missed by previous next-generation sequencing analyses of GC focused on DNA alterations alone. Our findings also suggest new GC therapeutic opportunities through ADAR1 enzymatic inhibition or the potential restoration of ADAR2 activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)637-650.e10
JournalGastroenterology
Volume151
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Oct 1

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Chan, T. H. M., Qamra, A., Tan, K. T., Guo, J., Yang, H., Qi, L., Lin, J. S., Ng, V. H. E., Song, Y., Hong, H., Tay, S. T., Liu, Y., Lee, J., Rha, S. Y., Zhu, F., So, J. B. Y., Teh, B. T., Yeoh, K. G., Rozen, S., ... Chen, L. (2016). ADAR-Mediated RNA Editing Predicts Progression and Prognosis of Gastric Cancer. Gastroenterology, 151(4), 637-650.e10. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.06.043