This study compared the effects of a real-world multidisciplinary intervention with additional exercise or nutritional elements and investigated the effectiveness of a booster intervention after weight regain. A total of 242 children and adolescents (age-and sex-specific body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85th percentile, mean age: 10.82 years, 60% male) were allocated to three groups: usual care, exercise, or nutrition. Six-month active treatment with 1:1 session and a maintenance stage with group activities were repeated twice to comprise a 24-month intervention. The primary outcome was change % of the BMI z-score (zBMI). A total of 110 (45.4%) participants completed the 24-month intervention. A mixed-effects model analysis indicated no significant interaction effect of the intervention group and treatment phase on the zBMI change % (p = 0.976). However, there was a significant main effect of the treatment phase on zBMI change % at 6 months (β = −2.98, [95% CI, −5.69–0.27]), 18 months (β = −3.99, [95% CI, −6.76–1.22]), and 24 months (β = −3.23, [95% CI, −5.94–0.52]; p = 0.042). The improvements in zBMI, body fat %, and cardiometabolic markers were observed only among males. Whereas the additive effect of intensive exercise or nutritional feedback was not detected in the long term, a booster intervention with 1:1 counseling was effective even after weight regain during the maintenance period. It may be useful to combine individualized counseling with a less intensive form of group care for long-term maintenance in a real-world setting.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, grant number 2016-ER6405-00, Hallym University Research Fund.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics