Background and study aims: Endoscopic resection (ER) is accepted as a curative treatment option for selected cases of early gastric cancer (EGC). Although additional surgery is often recommended for patients who have undergone non-curative ER, clinicians are cautious when managing elderly patients with GC because of comorbid conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate clinical outcomes in elderly patients following non-curative ER with and without additive treatment. Patients and methods: Subjects included 365 patients (>75 years old) who were diagnosed with EGC and underwent ER between 2007 and 2015. Clinical outcomes of three patient groups [curative ER (n = 246), non-curative ER with additive treatment (n = 37), non-curative ER without additive treatment (n = 82)] were compared. Results: Among the patients who underwent non-curative ER with additive treatment, 28 received surgery, three received a repeat ER, and six experienced argon plasma coagulation. Patients who underwent non-curative ER alone were significantly older than those who underwent additive treatment. Overall 5-year survival rates in the curative ER, non-curative ER with treatment, and non-curative ER without treatment groups were 84, 86, and 69 %, respectively. No significant difference in overall survival was found between patients in the curative ER and non-curative ER with additive treatment groups. The non-curative ER groups were categorized by lymph node metastasis risk factors to create a high-risk group that exhibited positive lymphovascular invasion or deep submucosal invasion greater than SM2 and a low-risk group without risk factors. Overall 5-year survival rate was lowest (60 %) in the high-risk group with non-curative ER and no additive treatment. Conclusions: Elderly patients who underwent non-curative ER with additive treatment showed better survival outcome than those without treatment. Therefore, especially with LVI or deep submucosal invasion, additive treatment is recommended in patients undergoing non-curative ER, even if they are older than 75 years.
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