Adiponectin acts as an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that protects against obesity-linked metabolic disease, which is generally associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The physiological effects of adiponectin on energy metabolism in the liver are mediated by its receptors. We found that the hepatic expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) was lower, but the expression of markers of the ER stress pathway, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), was higher in the liver of ob/ob mice compared with control mice. To investigate the regulation of AdipoR2 by ER stress, we added thapsigargin, an ER stress inducer, to a human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2. Addition of the ER stress inducer increased the levels of GRP78 and ATF3, and decreased that of AdipoR2, whereas addition of a chemical chaperone, 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA), could reverse them. Up- or down-regulation of ATF3 modulated the AdipoR2 protein levels and AdipoR2 promoter activities. Reporter gene assays using a series of 5′-deleted AdipoR2 promoter constructs revealed the location of the repressor element responding to ER stress and ATF3. In addition, using electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we identified a region between nucleotides -94 and -86 of the AdipoR2 promoter that functions as a putative ATF3-binding site in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our findings suggest that the ER stress-induced decrease in both protein and RNA of AdipoR2 results from a concomitant increase in expression of ATF3, which may play a role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance and related ER stress in hepatocytes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology