An increasing number of observations have contributed to the performance of numerical weather prediction systems. Accordingly, it is important to evaluate the impact of these observations on forecast accuracy. While the observing system experiment (OSE) requires considerable computational resources, the adjointderived method can evaluate the impact of all observational components at a lower cost. In this study, the effect of observations on forecasts is evaluated by the adjoint-derived method using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, its adjoint model, and a corresponding three-dimensional variational data assimilation system in East Asia and the western North Pacific for the 2008 typhoon season. Radiance observations had the greatest total impact on forecasts, but conventional wind observations had the greatest impact per observation. For each observation type, the total impact was greatest for radiosonde and each Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)-A satellite, followed by surface synoptic observation from a land station (SYNOP), Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), atmospheric motion vector (AMV) wind from a geostationary satellite (GEOAMV), and aviation routine weather reports (METARs). The fraction of beneficial observations was approximately 60%-70%, which is higher than that reported in previous studies. For several analyses of Typhoons Sinlaku (200813) and Jangmi (200815), dropsonde soundings taken near the typhoon had similar or greater observation impacts than routine radiosonde soundings. The sensitivity to the error covariance parameter indicates that reducing (increasing) observation (background) error covariance helps to reduce forecast error in the current analysis framework. The observation impact from OSEs is qualitatively similar to that from the adjoint method for major observation types. This study confirms that radiosonde observations provide primary information on the atmospheric state as in situ observations and that satellite radiances are an essential component of atmospheric observation systems.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science