Advanced Characterization Techniques for Sodium-Ion Battery Studies

Zulipiya Shadike, Enyue Zhao, Yong Ning Zhou, Xiqian Yu, Yong Yang, Enyuan Hu, Seongmin Bak, Lin Gu, Xiao Qing Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Sodium (Na)-ion batteries (NIBs) are considered promising alternative candidates to the well-commercialized lithium-ion batteries, especially for applications in large-scale energy storage systems. The electrochemical performance of NIBs such as the cyclability, rate capability, and voltage profiles are strongly dependent on the structural and morphological evolution, phase transformation, sodium-ion diffusion, and electrode/electrolyte interface reconstruction during charge–discharge cycling. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the structure and kinetics of electrode materials and the electrode/electrolyte interfaces is essential for optimizing current NIB systems and exploring new materials for NIBs. Recently, rapid progress and development in spectroscopic, microscopic, and scattering techniques have provided extensive insight into the nature of structural evolution, morphological changes of electrode materials, and electrode/electrolyte interface in NIBs. In this review, a comprehensive overview of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ or in operando) techniques for studying the NIBs is provided. Special focus is placed on how these techniques are applied to the fundamental investigation of NIB systems and what important results are obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1702588
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jun 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Leader of the electrochemical energy storage group in the Chemistry Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). He is the Principal Investigator (PI) for several Battery Material Research (BMR) programs including the Batter500 con- sortium at BNL funded by the Office of Vehicle Technologies, EE&RE, U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). He received his B.S. in Material Science from Shannxi Mechanic Engineering Institute in Xi’an, China, in 1976 and Ph.D. in Physics from University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA in 1986. He received the “2012 Vehicle Technologies Program R&D Award” from the Vehicle Technologies Office of EE&RE, USDOE in May, 2012. In January 2015, he received the IBA201 Research award from the International Battery Association (IBA).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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