The KDM4 subfamily H3K9 histone demethylases are epigenetic regulators that control chromatin structure and gene expression by demethylating histone H3K9, H3K36, and H1.4K26. The KDM4 subfamily mainly consists of four proteins (KDM4A-D), all harboring the Jumonji C domain (JmjC) but with differential substrate specificities. KDM4A-C proteins also possess the double PHD and Tudor domains, whereas KDM4D lacks these domains. KDM4 proteins are overexpressed or deregulated in multiple cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and mental retardation and are thus potential therapeutic targets. Despite extensive efforts, however, there are very few KDM4-selective inhibitors. Defining the exact physiological and oncogenic functions of KDM4 demethylase will provide the foundation for the discovery of novel potent inhibitors. In this review, we focus on recent studies highlighting the oncogenic functions of KDM4s and the interplay between KDM4-mediated epigenetic and metabolic pathways in cancer. We also review currently available KDM4 inhibitors and discuss their potential as therapeutic agents for cancer treatment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology