Background Anemia is a common complication among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients with CKD independent of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We assessed the association of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR with anemia in CKD patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the independent association of albuminuria with anemia. Furthermore, odds ratios for anemia were calculated by cross-categorization of ACR and eGFR. Results Among 1,456 patients, the mean age was 53.5 12.4 years, and the mean eGFR and ACR were 51.9 30.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and 853.2 1,330.3 mg/g, respectively. Anemia was present in 644 patients (40.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that the odds ratio of anemia increased according to ACR levels, after adjusting for age, sex, eGFR, body mass index, pulse pressure, cause of CKD, use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, serum calcium and ferritin (ACR 30 mg/g as a reference group; 30-299 mg/g, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.88-2.33; 300 mg/g, adjusted OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.12-3.10). In addition, graded associations were observed in cross-categorized groups of a higher ACR and eGFR compared to the reference group with an ACR 30mg/g and eGFR 60mL/min per 1.73 m2. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that albuminuria was a significant risk factor for anemia in CKD patients independent of the eGFR.
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© 2015 Han et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)