Objective: To assess the association of alcohol consumption with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in patients with CKD. Patients and Methods: The KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients with CKD (KNOW-CKD) is a prospective observational study that included detailed questionnaires regarding alcohol consumption. The 1883 individuals with CKD were enrolled from April 1, 2011, through February 28, 2016, and followed until May 31, 2017. Using a questionnaire, alcohol consumption pattern was classified according to the amount of alcohol per occasion (none, moderate, or binge) or drinking frequency (none, occasional, or regular). The primary endpoint was a composite of 50% or greater decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the baseline level or end-stage renal disease. Results: During a follow-up of 5555 person-years (median, 2.95 years), the primary outcome occurred in 419 patients. Unadjusted cause-specific hazards model showed that the risk of the primary outcome was lower in drinkers than in non-drinkers. However, a fully adjusted model including eGFR and proteinuria yielded a reverse association. Compared with non-drinking, regular and occasional binge drinking were associated with a 2.2-fold (95% CI, 1.38-3.46) and a 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.33-2.98) higher risk of CKD progression, respectively. This association was particularly evident in patients who had decreased kidney function and proteinuria. There was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and eGFR for CKD progression. The slopes of eGFR decline were steeper in binge drinkers among patients with eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Conclusions: Heavy alcohol consumption was associated with faster progression of CKD.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Grant Support: This work was supported by the Research Program funded by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011E3300300, 2012E3301100, 2013E3301600, 2013E3301601, 2013E3301602, and 2016E3300200). The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
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