Although myopia has been largely ignored among the elderly population, there is an increased risk of myopia with advancing age. Ambient air pollution is one potential contributor to vision impairments, but few epidemiological studies have demonstrated such an association. This cross-sectional survey collected the information of 33,626 subjects aged ≥50 years in six developing countries during 2007–2010. Myopia was identified based on questions related to symptoms of myopia. The annual concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) were estimated with the satellite data and chemical transport model. We examined the associations between the two pollutants and myopia using mixed-effect Poisson regression models with robust variance estimation (sandwich estimation). We observed J-shaped associations between the two pollutants and myopia, and identified 12 and 54 μg/m3 as the threshold concentrations. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.21) and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.38) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above their threshold, respectively. In addition, the interaction analysis suggested a synergistic interaction of these two pollutants on myopia in the additive model, with a synergistic index of 1.81 (Bootstrapping 95% CI: 0.92, 4.94). Our results indicate that long-term exposures to PM2.5 and O3 might be important environmental risk factors of myopia in the elderly, and suggest that more efforts should be taken to reduce airborne PM2.5 and O3 levels to protect vision health.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was partly supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (No.: 2015A030313002) and Guangzhou Department of Education, China (No.: 1201610036).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science(all)