Ambient spark generation to synthesize carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles in continuous aerosol manner

Jeong Hoon Byeon, Jae Hong Park, Ki Young Yoon, Jungho Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report the use of spark generation in an inert gas atmosphere to synthesize carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles (CEMNs) in a continuous aerosol manner using a metal (nickel, cobalt, iron)-graphite carbon electrode configuration without the use of a vacuum. The spark-generated particles consisted of CEMNs and carbonaceous aggregated debris. The outer layer of the CEMNs showed parallel fringes (ordered graphitic nanostructures) while the debris consisted of disordered nanostructures. Electron and X-ray diffraction showed that both metal and graphite in the CEMNs were the pure elements except for iron-carbon, which contained a carbide phase. Based on the order of the activation energies for carbon diffusion into a metal: iron-carbon (10.5-16.5 kcal mol-1) < cobalt-carbon (34.7 kcal mol-1) ∼ nickel-carbon (33.0-34.8 kcal mol-1), it was concluded that carbide particles form more easily from elemental iron than nickel or cobalt. The metal-to-carbon mass fractions of the spark-generated particles from nickel (anode)-carbon (cathode), cobalt-carbon, and iron-carbon spark configurations were 18.7, 28.3, and 11.2%, respectively, while the mass fractions for the configurations of metal (cathode)-carbon (anode) were 6.4, 9.1, and 4.3%, respectively. Similarly, the yield of CEMNs from the metal (anode)-carbon (cathode) electrodes was higher (54, 61, and 53%) than that of metal (cathode)-carbon (anode) electrodes (18, 30, and 18%).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-343
Number of pages5
JournalNanoscale
Volume1
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Dec 1

Fingerprint

Metal nanoparticles
Aerosols
Electric sparks
Carbon
Metals
Cobalt
Nickel
Iron
Anodes
Cathodes
Graphite
Debris
Electrodes
Carbides
Nanostructures
Noble Gases

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Byeon, Jeong Hoon ; Park, Jae Hong ; Yoon, Ki Young ; Hwang, Jungho. / Ambient spark generation to synthesize carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles in continuous aerosol manner. In: Nanoscale. 2009 ; Vol. 1, No. 3. pp. 339-343.
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Ambient spark generation to synthesize carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles in continuous aerosol manner. / Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong; Yoon, Ki Young; Hwang, Jungho.

In: Nanoscale, Vol. 1, No. 3, 01.12.2009, p. 339-343.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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