Although aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are housekeeping enzymes essential for protein synthesis, they can play non-catalytic roles in diverse biological processes. Some ARSs are capable of forming complexes with each other and additional proteins. This characteristic is most pronounced in mammals, which produce a macromolecular complex comprising nine different ARSs and three additional factors: p43, p38 and p18. We have been aware of the existence of this complex for a long time, but its structure and function have not been well understood. The only apparent distinction between the complex-forming ARSs and those that do not form complexes is their ability to interact with the three non-enzymatic factors. These factors are required not only for the catalytic activity and stability of the associated ARSs, such as isoleucyl-, methionyl-, and arginyl-tRNA synthetase, but also for diverse signal transduction pathways. They may thus have joined the ARS community to coordinate protein synthesis with other biological processes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology