## Abstract

Sustainable efficient energy is the key factor of any sustainable manufacturing system. This study addresses a multi-item sustainable economic energy efficient reliable manufacturing quantity (MSEEERMQ) model. The manufacturing system produces defective products during long-runs, where those products may be reworked under the optimum effect of energy and carbon footprint with some costs. As all products are not sold immediately, the holding cost increases based on time. The management decides the system design variable to reduce energy consumption cost and increase system reliability under some time-dependent holding costs, and the optimum energy such that the maximum profit of the production model is obtained with a system reliability as a decision variable. The inflation and time-value of money are considered to calculate the cost of the production model under efficient energy. Using control theory, an Euler–Lagrange method is employed to obtain the sustainable critical path, which gives the optimal solution of the model. There are two lemmas to prove the global optimal solution of the model through the control theory. There is an illustrative example to test the model. Under different conditions there are other two examples with graphical representation and sensitivity analysis. Numerical studies reveal that maximum profit is obtained at the optimal value of the decision variable.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 2857 |

Journal | Energies |

Volume | 12 |

Issue number | 15 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2019 Jul 25 |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:Funding: The research was funded by the research fund of Hanyang University (HY-2019-N) (Project number: 201900000000419).

Funding Information:

Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the research fund of Hanyang University (HY-2019-N) (Project number: 201900000000419).

Publisher Copyright:

c 2019 by the authors.

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Energy (miscellaneous)
- Control and Optimization
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering