This paper presents a single-channel atmospheric correction method for remotely sensed infrared (wavelength of 3-15 μm) images with various observation angles. The method is based on basic radiative transfer equations with a simple absorption-focused regression model to calculate the optical thickness of each atmospheric layer. By employing a simple regression model and re-organization of atmospheric profiles by considering viewing geometry, the proposed method conducts atmospheric correction at every pixel of a numerical weather prediction model in a single step calculation. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imaging channel (375 m) I4 (3.55~3.93 μm) and I5 (10.50~12.40 μm) bands were used as mid-wavelength and thermal infrared images to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed single-channel atmospheric correction method. The estimated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) obtained by the proposed method with high resolution numerical weather prediction models were compared with sea-truth temperature data from ocean buoys, multichannel-based SST products from VIIRS/MODIS, and results from MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission 5 (MODTRAN 5), for validation. High resolution (1.5 km and 12 km) numerical weather prediction (NWP) models distributed by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) were employed as input atmospheric data. Nighttime SST estimations with the I4 band showed a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.95 °C, similar to that of the VIIRS product (RMSE: 0.92 °C) and lower than that of the MODIS product (RMSE: 1.74 °C), while estimations with the I5 band showed an RMSE of 1.81 ffiC. RMSEs from MODTRAN simulations were similar (within 0.2 °C) to those of the proposed method (I4: 0.81 °C, I5: 1.67 °C). These results demonstrated the competitive performance of a regression-based method using high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) models for atmospheric correction of single-channel infrared imaging sensors.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMI2018-02910 This work was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMI2018-02910.
© 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)